For this purpose it is necessary to recall in thought the institution of Christianity. Wherefore, from the very earliest times the fathers and doctors of the Church have been accustomed to follow and, with one accord to defend this rule. Whatsoever He commands, He commands by the same authority. Therefore the Church is a society divine in its origin, supernatural in its end and in means proximately adapted to the attainment of that end; but it is a human community inasmuch as it is composed of men. For it can be said with less truth that every law is violated by one who commits a single sin, since it may be that he only virtually despises the majesty of God the Legislator. But what is this word? For this reason the entire case must be judged by what was actually done. 5, n. I). This is so, not only because of the nature of the doctrine itself and of the mysteries it involves, but also because of the divergencies of the human mind and of the disturbing element of conflicting passions. Hence as the Apostles and Disciples were bound to obey Christ, so also those whom the Apostles taught were, by God’s command, bound to obey them. This book includes thirty of his most well know encyclicals and letters. This He clearly resolved to do: this He actually did. Since therefore Peter has been placed as shepherd of the Christian flock he has received the power of governing all men for whose salvation Jesus Christ shed His blood. It is so evident from the clear and frequent testimonies of Holy Writ that the true Church of Jesus Christ is one, that no Christian can dare to deny it. Therefore if a man does not want to be, or to be called, a heretic, let him not strive to please this or that man…but let him hasten before all things to be in communion with the Roman See. God “hath made Him (Christ) head over all the Church, which is His body” (Eph. Similarly the Fourth Council of Lateran declares: “The Roman Church, as the mother and mistress of all the faithful, by the will of Christ obtains primacy of jurisdiction over all other Churches.” These declarations were preceded by the consent of antiquity which ever acknowledged, without the slightest doubt or hesitation, the Bishops of Rome, and revered them, as the legitimate successors of St. Peter. Furthermore, the Son of God decreed that the Church should be His mystical body, with which He should be united as the Head, after the manner of the human body which He assumed, to which the natural head is physiologically united. He who is the King of His Church, “Who bath the key of David, who openeth and no man shutteth, who shutteth and no man openeth (Apoc. Scattered and separated members cannot possibly cohere with the head so as to make one body. Jak Chrystus utworzył swój Kościół. For this reason Christ, speaking of the mystical edifice, mentions only one Church, which he calls His own-“I will build my church;” any other Church except this one, since it has not been founded by Christ, cannot be the true Church. The reason for which is stated thus: “there is no authority greater than that of the Apostolic See” (Nicholaus in Epist. Leo the great rescinded the acts of the Conciliabulum of Ephesus. lxix., ad Magnum, n. I). lib. “Heresies and schisms have no other origin than that obedience is refused to the priest of God, and that men lose sight of the fact that there is one judge in the place of Christ in this world” (Epist. But the powers needed for this purpose were given by God to 3. In the same way in man, nothing is more internal than heavenly grace which begets sanctity, but the ordinary and chief means of obtaining grace are external: that is to say, the sacraments which are administered by men specially chosen for that purpose, by means of certain ordinances. iv., 14): and this he teaches is to be observed, not for a time only-“but until we all meet in the unity of faith…unto the measure of the age of the fulness of Christ” (13). unity of the faith. Even More Resources. The doctrine " outside the Church no salvation" is no longer believed by the vast majority of those who call themselves as Catholic. Constantinopolitani iv). Spokane, WA 99217 Phone: (509) 467-0986 Fax: (509) 467-2425 Contact by Email And with the same yearning Our soul goes out to those whom the foul breath of irreligion has not entirely corrupted, and who at least seek to have the true God, the Creator of Heaven and earth, as their Father. Those who break with it are in schism. “Why has He shed His blood? Wherefore, as Christ was sent by God and the Apostles by Christ, so the Bishops and those who succeeded them were sent by the Apostles. to serve men. Encyclical: 1898.12.25: Properante ad exitum sæculo Proclaiming the Jubilee of 1900. jubilee . A primacy of honour and the shadowy right of giving advice and admonition, which is called direction, could never secure to any society of men unity or strength. is also needed the worship, the sacraments, and the legislation, all found If thou lovest me, Peter, feed my sheep. “All power is given to Me in Heaven and in earth. “He shall give testimony of Me, and you shall give testimony” (Ibid. These things enable us to see the heavenly ideal, and the divine exemplar, of the constitution of the Christian commonwealth, namely: When the Divine founder decreed that the Church should be one in faith, in government, and in communion, He chose Peter and his successors as the principle and centre, as it were, of this unity. ii., cap. Say NO to ignorance "Ignorance is no excuse when we have neglected to learn what we are obliged to know."St. Church, for the two authorities are not on the same level. In his Encyclical Satis Cognitum,on the oneness and unity of the Church, Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) teaches: “It is so evident from the clear and frequent testimonies of Holy Writ that the true Church of Jesus Christ is one,that no Christian can dare to deny it…. xv., 24). If the power of binding, loosening, and feeding confers upon each and every one of the Bishops the successors of the Apostles a real authority to rule the people committed to him, certainly the same power must have the same effect in his case to whom the duty of feeding the lambs and sheep has been assigned by God. Michael Dimond and Bro. But since He willed that His kingdom should be visible He was obliged, when He ascended into Heaven, to designate a vice-gerent on earth. de Fide Orthodoxa contra Arianos). x., 10). What is cut away from the mother cannot live or breathe apart” (Ibid.). And in another place: “The Church will totter if its foundation shakes; but how can Christ be moved?…Christ remaining immovable, it (the Church), shall never be shaken. Christ therefore must have given to His Church a supreme authority to which all Christians must render obedience. In sending them, Christ conferred on Church, which is both spiritual and visible. . For this reason we find it called in Holy Writ by names indicating a perfect society. James i., 17) – from Him, namely, who alone “gives the increase” (I Cor. The unity of the Church is that which Christ xvii., Contra Faustum Manichaeum, cap. “It is not congruous that two superiors with equal authority should be placed over the same flock; but that two, one of whom is higher than the other, should be placed over the same people is not incongruous. Encyklika Leona XIII "Satis cognitum". Joan., tract xviii., cap. “For no man ever hated his own flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth it, as also Christ doth the Church: because we are members of His body, of His flesh, and of His bones” (Eph. For this reason Jesus Christ willed that Peter should participate in certain names, signs of great things which properly belong to Himself alone: in order that identity of titles should show identity of power. But it is obvious that nothing can be communicated amongst men save by means of external things which the senses can perceive. But, as we have already said, the Apostolic mission was not destined to die with the Apostles themselves, or to come to an end in the course of time, since it was intended for the people at large and instituted for the salvation of the human race. 16. i., cap. But since the Church is such by divine will and constitution, such it must uniformly remain to the end of time. It was necessary that a government of this kind, since it belongs to the constitution and formation of the Church, as its principal element – that is as the principle of unity and the foundation of lasting stability – should in no wise come to an end with St. Peter, but should pass to his successors from one to another. “The Lord does not hesitate. 3, n. 2); and St. Cyprian also says of the Roman Church, that “it is the root and mother of the Catholic Church, the chair of Peter, and the principal Church whence sacerdotal unity has its source” (Ep. “The Church,” he says, “cannot be divided into parts by the separation and cutting asunder of its members. Who is unaware of the many and evident testimonies of the holy Fathers which exist to this effect? Christ imparts His gifts, and is not exhausted….He is a priest, and makes priests. So much so, that he who would place another chair against that one chair, would be a schismatic and a sinner” (De Schism. 74). 7. “As the Father bath sent me, I also send you” (John xx., 21). “Ad thou bast sent Me into the world I also have sent them into the world” (John xvii., 18). “When he heard `thou art a rock,’ he was ennobled by the announcement. Christian communities. ad Titum, cap. But He, indeed, Who made this one Church, also gave it unity, that is, He made it such that all who are to belong to it must be united by the closest bonds, so as to form one society, one kingdom, one body – “one body and one spirit as you are called in one hope of your calling (Eph. To refuse to the Church the primacy is most impious and above measure arrogant. If we consider the chief end of His Church and the proximate efficient causes of salvation, it is undoubtedly spiritual; but in regard to those who constitute it, and to the things which lead to these spiritual gifts, it is external and necessarily visible. EWTN | 5817 Old Leeds Rd. “The unity of the Church is manifested in the mutual connection or communication of its members, and likewise in the relation of all the members of the Church to one head” (St. Thomas, 2a 2ae, 9, xxxix., a. I). Hold fast, therefore, O dearly beloved, hold fast altogether God as your Father, and the Church as your Mother” (Enarratio in Psal. 21). But in judging and determining the nature of this unity many have erred in various ways. For Christ is by His very being an immovable rock; Peter only through this rock. iv., 15-16). lxxxvi. Certainly Christ is a King for ever; and though invisible, He continues unto the end of time to govern and guard His church from Heaven. One cannot have Christ as his father who does not have the Church Hence He commands that the teaching of the Apostles should be religiously accepted and piously kept as if it were His own – “He who hears you hears Me, he who despises you despises Me” (Luke x., 16). iii., v. 10-11). This twofold element will last for the life of Although he is a rock, not as Christ is a rock, but as Peter is a rock. “Whosoever is separated from the Church is united to an adulteress. because Christ alone has spoken of one Church, His own, and so as Christ For the end for which the Church exists is as much higher than the end of other societies as divine grace is above nature, as immortal blessings are above the transitory things on the earth. One either accepts the faith entirely or stops having faith, for “But if I do (the works) though you will not believe Me, believe the works” (Ibid. Wherefore Holy Writ pointing to its strength and stability calls it a mountain” (Hom. Christ the Lord, as we have quite sufficiently shown, made Peter and his successors His vicars, to exercise for ever in the Church the power which He exercised during His mortal life. Wherefore they who pretend that the Church has any wish to interfere in Civil matters, or to infringe upon the rights of the State, know it not, or wickedly calumniate it. And God makes known their divine mission by numerous miracles. If he be in communion with it, he should be acknowledged by all and everywhere as faithful and orthodox. The Lord saith to Peter: ‘I say to thee thou art Peter’; on him alone He buildeth His Church; and although after His Resurrection He gives a similar power to all the Apostles and says: ‘As the Father hath sent me,’ &c., still in order to make the necessary unity clear, by His own authority He laid down the source of that unity as beginning from one” (De Unit. So Jesus Christ has perpetuated His mission in the Catholic This is the office appointed unto it by God: that it may watch over and may order all that concerns religion, and may, without let or hindrance, exercise, according to its judgment, its charge over Christianity. Wherever they went they proclaimed themselves the ambassadors of Christ Himself. He is a rock, and constitutes a rock” (Hom. xii., 27)-and precisely because it is a body is the Church visible: and because it is the body of Christ is it living and energizing, because by the infusion of His power Christ guards and sustains it, just as the vine gives nourishment and renders fruitful the branches united to it. Pope Pius XII, Mystici Corporis (1943), #69. Biblical usage and the unanimous teaching of the Fathers clearly show that supreme authority is designated in the passage by the word keys. And many people shall go, and say: Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the House of the God of Jacob, and He will teach us His ways, and we will walk in His paths” (Ibid., ii., 2-3). “If I had not done among them the works than no other man had done, they would not have sin” (Ibid. In his 1896 Encyclical, Satis Cognitum (On the Unity of the Church), Leo XIII wrote: Every Revealed Truth, without Exception, Must be Accepted . lxx., n. 8). Kościół zawsze widoczny. xv., ad Damasum, n. 2). he who rejects even one revealed truth, gives up the faith. Pope Leo XIII, Satis cognitum, p.7 in the St. Paul edition. Yea, they look up whatever honour or obedience is given to the bishops as paid to themselves. South America . -This glossary of terms and principles will hopefully provide a quick aid to those unfamiliar with some of the phrases, topics or principles that are frequently discussed in this book. lxxxviii. xvi., ad Damasum, n. 2). Christ said His Church is one mystical Body, as we see in And as the Bishops, each in his own district, command with real power not only individuals but the whole community, so the Roman pontiffs, whose jurisdiction extends to the whole Christian commonwealth, must have all its parts, even taken collectively, subject and obedient to their authority. 7. Let such as these take counsel with themselves, and realize that they can in no wise be counted among the children of God, unless they take Christ Jesus as their Brother, and at the same time the Church as their mother. iii., cap. Hispan., n. 4). He requires the assent of the mind to all truths without exception. 10. 15. Rightly, therefore, does St. Leo the Great say: “From the whole world Peter alone is chosen to take the lead in calling all nations, to be the head of all the Apostles and of all the Fathers of the Church. He speaks in vain who tries to persuade me of the orthodoxy of those who, like himself, refuse obedience to his Holiness the Pope of the most holy Church of Rome: that is to the Apostolic See.” The reason and motive of this he explains to be that “the Apostolic See has received and hath government, authority, and power of binding and loosing from the Incarnate Word Himself; and, according to all holy synods, sacred canons and decrees, in all things and through all things, in respect of all the holy churches of God throughout the whole world, since the Word in Heaven who rules the Heavenly powers binds and loosens there” (Defloratio ex Epistola ad Petrum illustrem). And Optatus of Milevis says: “You cannot deny that you know that in the city of Rome the Episcopal chair was first conferred on Peter. Magisterium (Urząd Nauczycielski) Kościoła jest wieczyste. exterior at the same time. The Church is a society which is both supernatural and Two errors: (1) Some affirm exclusively the spiritual nature of the Wherefore Jesus Christ bade all men, present and future, follow Him as their leader and Saviour; and this, not merely as individuals, but as forming a society, organized and united in mind. Pope Leo XIII related in the Encyclical Satis Cognitum: [I]t is clear that by the will and command of God the Church rests upon St. Peter, just as a building rests on its foundation. So that whereas Peter alone received many things, He conferred nothing on any of the rest without Peter participating in it” (S. Leo M. sermo iv., cap. 4. That is: the power of forgiving and retaining sins was given to him who, up to the present time, lives and exercises judgment in the persons of his successors” (Actio iii.). Constitution of the Old Roman Catholic Church, Article II. Truly the voice of the Apostles, when the Holy Ghost had come down upon them, resounded throughout the world. The nature of this supreme authority, which all Christians are bound to obey, can be ascertained only by finding out what was the evident and positive will of Christ. ii., 16) commands Peter “to confirm his brethren.”. Clinging to thy Mother, thou offendest thy Father. capp. “He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, but he that believed not shall be condemned” (Mark xvi., 16). Let no one say, I go indeed to idols, I consult fortune-tellers and soothsayers; but I leave not the Church of God: I am a Catholic. of the faith. successors, the Popes. Jesus Christ was sent by God. S. Basilii). invested with all powers to legislate, judge, and govern. 1. Still who does not know that they were declared heretics and banished from the bosom of the Church? x., 17). xxx., ad Eulogium). 14. in Matt. Satis Cognitum On the Unity of the Church Pope Leo XIII – 1896 To Our Venerable Brethren, the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, and other Ordinaries in Peace and Communion with the Apostolic See. In this same sense He says: “Whatsoever thou shall bind upon earth it shall be bound also in Heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth it shall be loosed also in Heaven.” This metaphorical expression of binding and loosing indicates the power of making laws, of judging and of punishing; and the power is said to be of such amplitude and force that God will ratify whatever is decreed by it. Thus it is supreme and absolutely independent, so that, having no other power on earth as its superior, it embraces the whole Church and all things committed to the Church. We should believe not otherwise than has been handed down by the tradition of the Church of God” (Vetus Interpretatio Commentariorum in Matt. 3). . 4. The Magisterium of the Church is, then, the external principle of in Epist. 8). Unity, characteristic of the Church founded by Christ, has a strong Peter has over the episcopate a true and supreme authority. 869, Cf. liac., ad eundem, n. 14). It never grows old, but is ever full of vigour. To buy the sheep which He handed over to Peter and his successors” (S. Joannes Chrysostomus, De Sacerdotio, lib. The disciples “For the pronouncement of Our Lord Jesus Christ saying: ‘Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church,’ &c., cannot be passed over. Not the foundation of the Church alone, but its whole constitution, belongs to the class of things effected by Christ’s free choice. “In many things they are with me, in a few things not with me; but in those few things in which they are not with me the many things in which they are will not profit them” (S. Augustinus in Psal. Rightly, therefore, has Leo X. laid down in the 5th council of Lateran “that the Roman Pontiff alone, as having authority over all Councils, has full jurisdiction and power to summon, to transfer, to dissolve Councils, as is clear, not only from the testimony of Holy Writ, from the teaching of the Fathers and of the Roman Pontiffs, and from the decrees of the sacred canons, but from the teaching of the very Councils themselves.” Indeed, Holy Writ attests that the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven were given to Peter alone, and that the power of binding and loosening was granted to the Apostles and to Peter; but there is nothing to show that the Apostles received supreme power without Peter, and against Peter. rosary . But St. Paul says: “All members of the body, whereas they are many, yet are one body, so also is Christ” (I Cor. It would, for this very reason, be subject to various and contradictory interpretations. The entire The following are words of Sister Lucy of Fatima concerning the Rosary: ... Satis Cognitum. That unity of the Church Nor is it improbable that ignorance may be dispelled by the consideration; that false ideas and prejudices may be dissipated from the minds chiefly of those who find themselves in error without fault of theirs; and that even a love for the Church may be stirred up in the souls of men, like unto that charity wherewith Christ loved and united himself to that spouse redeemed by His precious blood. The priestly prayer of Christ makes clear this point. In which judgment St. John Chrysostom concurs: “I say and protest (he writes) that it is as wrong to divide the Church as to fall into heresy” (Hom. The meaning of this divine utterance is, that, notwithstanding the wiles and intrigues which they bring to bear against the Church, it can never be that the church committed to the care of Peter shall succumb or in any wise fail. the Church. xi., in Epist. In this he first admonishes them to preserve with every care concord of minds: “Solicitous to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace” (Eph. In this wise, and on this principle, the Church was begotten. Eccl., lib. Mount St. Michael 8500 N. St. Michael’s Rd. Also Augustine says: “Unbelievers think that the Christian religion will last for a certain period in the world and will then disappear. As He took to Himself a mortal body, which He gave to suffering and death in order to pay the price of man’s redemption, so also He has one mystical body in which and through which He renders men partakers of holiness and of eternal salvation. Popes have the Hence those remarkable expressions of the ancients concerning St. Peter, which most clearly set forth the fact that he was placed in the highest degree of dignity and authority. Jesus Christ, when His death was nigh at hand, declared His will in this matter, and solemnly offered it up, thus addressing His Father: “Not for them only do I pray, but for them also who through their word shall believe in Me…that they also may be one in Us…that they may be made perfect in one” (John xvii., 20-21 23). “The Head and the body are Christ wholly and entirely. Nor is it lawful to interpret in a different sense what was given to Peter alone, and what was given to the other Apostles conjointly with him. v., 25). Amongst these the most worthy of Our chief consideration is Unity. We lovingly address to all the words of St. Augustine: “Let us love the Lord our God; let us love His Church; the Lord as our Father, the Church as our Mother. 3). That external element is Wherefore Chrysostom writes: “Secede not from the Church: for nothing is stronger than the Church. But faith alone cannot compass so great, excellent, and important an end. iv., cap. 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